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ERIC Number: ED527869
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2011
Pages: 156
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 0
ISBN: ISBN-978-1-1245-7546-9
An Effective Approach to Biomedical Information Extraction with Limited Training Data
Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha
ProQuest LLC, Ph.D. Dissertation, Arizona State University
In the current millennium, extensive use of computers and the internet caused an exponential increase in information. Few research areas are as important as information extraction, which primarily involves extracting concepts and the relations between them from free text. Limitations in the size of training data, lack of lexicons and lack of relationship patterns are major factors for poor performance in information extraction. This is because the training data cannot possibly contain all concepts and their synonyms; and it contains only limited examples of relationship patterns between concepts. Creating training data, lexicons and relationship patterns is expensive, especially in the biomedical domain (including clinical notes) because of the depth of domain knowledge required of the curators. Dictionary-based approaches for concept extraction in this domain are not sufficient to effectively overcome the complexities that arise because of the descriptive nature of human languages. For example, there is a relatively higher amount of abbreviations (not all of them present in lexicons) compared to everyday English text. Sometimes abbreviations are modifiers of an adjective (e.g. CD4-negative) rather than nouns (and hence, not usually considered named entities). There are many chemical names with numbers, commas, hyphens and parentheses (e.g. t(3;3)(q21;q26)), which will be separated by most tokenizers. In addition, partial words are used in place of full words (e.g. up- and downregulate); and some of the words used are highly specialized for the domain. Clinical notes contain peculiar drug names, anatomical nomenclature, other specialized names and phrases that are not standard in everyday English or in published articles (e.g. "l shoulder inj"). State of the art concept extraction systems use machine learning algorithms to overcome some of these challenges. However, they need a large annotated corpus for every concept class that needs to be extracted. A novel natural language processing approach to minimize this limitation in concept extraction is proposed here using distributional semantics. Distributional semantics is an emerging field arising from the notion that the meaning or semantics of a piece of text (discourse) depends on the distribution of the elements of that discourse in relation to its surroundings. Distributional information from large unlabeled data is used to automatically create lexicons for the concepts to be tagged, clusters of contextually similar words, and thesauri of distributionally similar words. These automatically generated lexical resources are shown here to be more useful than manually created lexicons for extracting concepts from both literature and narratives. Further, machine learning features based on distributional semantics are shown to improve the accuracy of BANNER, and could be used in other machine learning systems such as cTakes to improve their performance. In addition, in order to simplify the sentence patterns and facilitate association extraction, a new algorithm using a "shotgun" approach is proposed. The goal of sentence simplification has traditionally been to reduce the grammatical complexity of sentences while retaining the relevant information content and meaning to enable better readability for humans and enhanced processing by parsers. Sentence simplification is shown here to improve the performance of association extraction systems for both biomedical literature and clinical notes. It helps improve the accuracy of protein-protein interaction extraction from the literature and also improves relationship extraction from clinical notes (such as between medical problems, tests and treatments). Overall, the two main contributions of this work include the application of sentence simplification to association extraction as described above, and the use of distributional semantics for concept extraction. The proposed work on concept extraction amalgamates for the first time two diverse research areas--distributional semantics and information extraction. This approach renders all the advantages offered in other semi-supervised machine learning systems, and, unlike other proposed semi-supervised approaches, it can be used on top of different basic frameworks and algorithms. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:]
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Publication Type: Dissertations/Theses - Doctoral Dissertations
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A