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ERIC Number: ED527634
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2009-Jun
Pages: 218
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 126
Effective Programs for Struggling Readers: A Best-Evidence Synthesis
Slavin, Robert E.; Lake, Cynthia; Davis, Susan; Madden, Nancy A.
Center for Data-Driven Reform in Education
This article reviews research on the achievement outcomes of alternative approaches for struggling readers in grades K-5: One-to-one tutoring, small group tutorials, classroom instructional process approaches, and computer-assisted instruction. Study inclusion criteria included use of randomized or well-matched control groups, study duration of at least 12 weeks, and use of valid measures independent of treatments. A total of 96 studies met these criteria. The review concludes that one-to-one tutoring is very effective in improving reading performance. Tutoring models that focus on phonics obtain much better outcomes than others. Teachers are more effective than paraprofessionals and volunteers as tutors. Small-group, phonetic tutorials can be effective, but are not as effective as one-to-one phonetically-focused tutoring. Classroom instructional process programs, especially cooperative learning, can have very positive effects for struggling readers. Computer-assisted instruction generally had few effects on reading. Taken together, the findings support a strong focus on improving classroom instruction and then providing one-to-one, phonetic tutoring to students who continue to experience difficulties. Appended are: (1) A table showing lists of programs, studies, and reasons for exclusion; and (2) Abbreviations. (Contains 7 tables and 2 figures.)
Center for Data-Driven Reform in Education. Johns Hopkins University, 200 West Towsontown Boulevard, Baltimore, MD 21204. Web site:
Publication Type: Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: Early Childhood Education; Elementary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: Institute of Education Sciences (ED)
Authoring Institution: N/A
IES Funded: Yes
Grant or Contract Numbers: R305A040082