**ERIC Number:**ED527194

**Record Type:**Non-Journal

**Publication Date:**2009

**Pages:**176

**Abstractor:**As Provided

**Reference Count:**N/A

**ISBN:**ISBN-978-1-1241-5403-9

**ISSN:**N/A

The Efficacy of Instructional Strategy on Mathematics Achievement, Attitudes, and Anxiety Levels of Developmental Math Students

Thomas-Browne, Carmen G.

ProQuest LLC, Ph.D. Dissertation, Robert Morris University

This dissertation investigated three instructional strategies in developmental math classes to determine if instructional strategy had a positive effect on student achievement, attitude towards mathematics, and anxiety level towards mathematics at a college in western Pennsylvania for students majoring in applied arts. The significance of this study is based on the fact that general education courses, particularly math, often present a challenge to students in this population. The study utilized a quasi-experimental design with four intact classes in the fall of 2008 quarter. Seventy-eight students participated in the study. One class was instructed using direct instruction and supplemented with formative assessment; one class was instructed using direct instruction and supplemented with mastery assessment via computer technology; and two classes were instructed using direct instruction and supplemented with cooperative learning groups. The researcher was the instructor for all classes; therefore, students in all classes were exposed to identical material, assignments, exams, and direct instruction. The instructional strategies employed in the study are considered best practices in the teaching and learning of mathematics. The goal of the study was to determine if one or more of the best practice instructional strategies was more effective for increasing student achievement, student attitudes towards mathematics, and decreasing math anxiety in the population of students. The students were assessed using pretests and posttests for both achievement and attitudes towards mathematics. Achievement was measured using the Accuplacer, a web-based assessment instrument created by The College Board that is used to measure placement and/or achievement in mathematics and English. Six attitudinal variables, perception of the math teacher, math anxiety level, value of mathematics in society, self-perception in mathematics, enjoyment of mathematics, and motivation in mathematics were measured using the Mathematics Attitude Inventory (MAI) created by Richard Sandman. One-way ANOVAs were run to assess the gain scores in each category. When statistically significant differences were found in the gain scores between groups, LSD Post hoc analyses were conducted to determine which groups differed. The results revealed that all instructional strategies employed in this study improved student achievement and most of the attitudinal variable scores. Although there were only statistically significant differences in two attitudinal categories, Value of Mathematics in Society and Self Perception in Mathematics, the Mastery Assessment group consistently outperformed all of the groups. In addition, the Mastery Assessment group proved to be the best group in the success rate of the course. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page: http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.]

Descriptors: Direct Instruction, Educational Strategies, Quasiexperimental Design, Student Attitudes, Formative Evaluation, Mathematics Achievement, Academic Achievement, Developmental Programs, Instructional Effectiveness, Scientific Attitudes, Mathematics Anxiety, Best Practices, Pretests Posttests, Predictor Variables, Intermode Differences, Achievement Gains, Mastery Tests, Cooperative Learning, Experimental Groups

ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway, P.O. Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Tel: 800-521-0600; Web site: http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml

**Publication Type:**Dissertations/Theses - Doctoral Dissertations

**Education Level:**Higher Education

**Audience:**N/A

**Language:**English

**Sponsor:**N/A

**Authoring Institution:**N/A

**Identifiers - Location:**Pennsylvania