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ERIC Number: ED525918
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2010
Pages: 217
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 0
ISBN: ISBN-978-1-1244-7230-0
An Exploratory Study of the Restorative Benefits of Hiking in Wilderness Solitude and Its Relationship to Job Satisfaction
Ellison, Mark Andrew
ProQuest LLC, Ed.D. Dissertation, North Carolina State University
The purpose of this exploratory research was to examine the relationship between the restorative benefits of hiking in wilderness solitude (RBHWS) and job satisfaction. This research is a jumping off point, intended to guide future research on the RBHWS, and the practical utilization of this in human resource development. This research sought to identify if there was an association between the independent and dependent variables, not to determine if there was causality. The opportunity to leave a work environment that causes stress and fatigue to experience solitude and restoration may have an impact on an employee's attitudes toward the job and the workplace. Theoretical support for this research is found in the work of: 1) Westin (1967) and his theory on privacy, which is extended by Hammitt & Brown (1984); and 2) Fishbein (1963, 1967, 1973, 1980); Ajzen & Fishbein (1977, 2008); and Fishbein and Ajzen (1975) and their theory and research on attitudes. The survey instrument used for this research was adapted from research instruments related to: 1) functions of wilderness privacy (Hammitt & Brown, 1984); 2) recollected benefits of wilderness solitude (Walker, Hull & Roggenbuck, 1998); and 3) the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire Short Form (Weiss, Dawis, England, & Lofquist, 1967). This is the first known empirical research on this topic. Three research questions guided the research: 1) Is there a relationship between the RBHWS and the job satisfaction of individuals who are employed, or have recently been employed in any occupational setting? 2) Is the relationship between the RBHWS and the job satisfaction of individuals who are employed, or have recently been employed in an occupational setting impacted by age, gender, income or education level? 3) Is the relationship between the RBHWS and the job satisfaction of individuals who are employed, or have recently been employed in any occupational setting impacted by selected moderating variables? A convenience sample was utilized for this research. Hikers had access to the survey via the internet at "" Information about the survey was made available on the Facebook pages of hiking related groups such as the Appalachian Trail Conservancy (ATC). The ATC also sent a message to its Facebook "fans" to promote the survey. Preliminary data analysis included addressing missing data, detecting outliers, and testing for linearity, independence, and normality. Cronbach's alpha was used to examine internal consistency. Exploratory factor analysis was done to ensure each of the instruments factored into the appropriate constructs for this population. A Pearson's correlation was used to answer question one. Stepwise multiple regression was used to answer questions two and three. Findings indicated that there was a slight negative relationship between the RBHWS and job satisfaction, which was significant. A negligible relationship was identified between the recollected benefits of wilderness solitude factor related to work. A stepwise regression showed attending graduate school (step 1), graduating from high school (step 2), age (step 3), living in an urban environment (step 4), noise level at work (step 5), job inside or outside (step 6), income $10,000-$14,999 (step 7), income $25,000-$34,999 (step 8), income $20,000-$24,999 (step 9), recollected benefits factor two and hours worked (step 10), recollected benefits two and high school graduation (step 11), recollected benefits two and income $10,000-14,999 (step 12), and wilderness sum and income $25,000-34,999 (step 13) could be used to explain 18.5% of the variance of job satisfaction. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:]
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Publication Type: Dissertations/Theses - Doctoral Dissertations
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A