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ERIC Number: ED523949
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2010
Pages: 413
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: N/A
ISBN: ISBN-978-1-1243-8789-5
Chinese Cultural Education in Post-Colonial Hong Kong: Primary School Chinese Language Teachers' Belief and Practice
Kwan, Ming Kai Marko
ProQuest LLC, D.Ed. Dissertation, The Chinese University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong)
Before 1997, no formal curriculum on Chinese cultural education for primary schools was developed in Hong Kong although the education authority had started to introduce some items of Chinese cultural learning into the Chinese language syllabus when the Target Oriented Curriculum was implemented in 1996. However, such items were incorporated into an annex of the syllabus and the areas covered were limited. Since Chinese cultural education can enhance the recognition of national identity among Hong Kong students and enrich their knowledge of China, it should become an important component of Chinese language education after the handover of Hong Kong in 1997. In 2001, when education reform was implemented, the education authority introduced a new learning domain, i.e. "Chinese culture" into the Chinese Language Education Key Learning Area. Traditionally, the provision of Chinese cultural education in primary schools has always been the job of the Chinese language teachers. In view of the above, the theme of this research focuses on the belief and practices of primary school teachers of Chinese language in relation to Chinese cultural education in post-colonial Hong Kong. Nine primary school teachers of Chinese language were interviewed. Five of them were interviewed twice. These interviews were completed within a year to avoid any significant changes in belief and practice by the teacher interviewees over time. The data collected, after consolidation and analysis, were divided into three main areas: the teachers' belief, the teachers' practices, and the factors affecting the teachers' belief and practice. Regarding the teachers' belief, it is found that the teachers consider Chinese cultural education an important domain and this is related to their high recognition of the national identity. They consider themselves Chinese and so they accept their role in teaching the Chinese culture. They argue that as their students are Chinese so they need to learn Chinese culture. Moreover, the teachers see Chinese culture as "ancient" and "abstract". When they are asked to put Chinese cultural education into practice and to suggest some topics for the curriculum, they will suggest some concrete and easy-to-handle cultural items. The teachers have indicated their need to cater for students' interest in learning. They say they always use issues in daily life to illustrate the content of the texts they find in textbooks and cultural learning items. They believe in imperceptible influence of the Chinese cultural education on students' thinking and characters. They consider delivering the cultural knowledge a vital part of implementing the Chinese cultural education curriculum. They also express that they believe in direct instruction and rote learning, and what they teach should match with what is tested in the school examination and the Territory-wide System Assessment. It is found that the teachers' practice emerges from their belief and teachers' belief impacts on their practice, i.e. teachers' belief influences their practice and vise versa. Speaking of the teaching practice, the teachers are the ones who plan and implement the curriculum at classroom level. In implementing the central curriculum, the teachers admit that they rely on textbooks although some school-based materials are adapted and tailored-made for supplementing the central curriculum. Besides using direct instruction to deliver cultural learning items, the teachers also adopt other teaching methods, e.g. discovery learning and guided learning They would make use of every opportunity to teach. Because of the insufficiency of teaching time, the schools have to use other learning paths to cover Chinese cultural learning. The schools also organize extended learning activities outside the classroom such as Chinese culture weeks, civic education activities, and cultural exchanges with schools in the Mainland. Teachers' knowledge of Chinese cultural education is the most influential factor on teachers' belief and practice. Lacking relevant training, teachers' belief is mainly formed by their own past learning experiences. Supports from inside and outside school are useful to the improvement of teachers' practice. The teacher interviewed express that they have perceived that Chinese cultural education is not heavily weighted by the education authority and the schools. Based on the findings of the research, some recommendations have been made to schools, teacher training institutes and the education authority. It is proposed that teacher training courses should foster teachers' knowledge and skills in carrying out Chinese cultural education. Moreover, it is worthwhile to further study the Chinese cultural education provided in primary schools. The directions and development of the curriculum should be explored. It is also suggested that quality of the textbooks should be improved as it will help teachers upgrade their teaching practice. In conclusion, it is advisable to further review the aims of Chinese cultural education, to redesign the curriculum and make it more suitable for our younger generation. (Abstract shortened by UMI.) [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:]
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Publication Type: Dissertations/Theses - Doctoral Dissertations
Education Level: Elementary Education; Elementary Secondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: China; Hong Kong