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ERIC Number: ED521573
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2007
Pages: 84
Abstractor: ERIC
Reference Count: 16
Extensive Reading Interventions in Grades K-3: From Research to Practice
Scammacca, Nancy; Vaughn, Sharon; Roberts, Greg; Wanzek, Jeanne; Torgesen, Joseph K.
Center on Instruction
The report summarizes relevant high-quality research studies and synthesizes their findings to determine the relative effectiveness of interventions for struggling early readers. Additionally, the authors outline the implications of these findings for practice. Specific suggestions for implementing the findings are discussed in detail beginning on page 29. They are briefly listed as follows: (1) Extensive interventions can be effective even when provided by relatively low-cost implementers when appropriate training is provided and the interventions are fairly structured and delivered one-on-one or in groups of two or three students; (2) In studies that included a follow-up assessment, gains from early extensive interventions appear to be maintained over time, at least into second grade; (3) All of the effective early interventions examined in these studies shared four essential elements: training in phonological awareness, decoding, and word study; guided and independent reading of progressively more difficult texts; writing exercises; and engaging students in practicing comprehension strategies while reading text; (4) Other elements of these interventions that may be related to their success include group size (one-on-one, small group), the daily or near-daily frequency of the intervention sessions, and the early identification (in K or Grade 1) of students in need of intervention. These elements were evident though not directly tested in most relevant research studies; (5) The authors know considerably more about the effectiveness of early interventions than they do about interventions provided at later stages of development; and (6) Considerably more research is needed on students whose response to treatment is relatively low. Most of these implications apply best to students who are judged to be among the 20% to 25% most at risk for reading problems at the beginning of kindergarten, first, or second grade. As the research intervention literature extends to more severely disabled students, these conclusions may need to be modified. (Contains 3 tables.) [This paper was written with the assistance of Lynn Fuchs and Patricia Mathes.]
Center on Instruction. Available from: RMC Research Corporation. 1000 Market Street Building 2, Portsmouth, NH 03801. Tel: 800-258-0802; Tel: 603-422-8888; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: Elementary Education; Grade 1; Grade 2; Grade 3; Kindergarten; Primary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: Department of Education (ED)
Authoring Institution: Center on Instruction