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ERIC Number: ED520714
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2010
Pages: 134
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: N/A
ISBN: ISBN-978-1-1240-6226-6
Response-to-Intervention in California Public Schools: Has It Helped Address Disproportional Placement Rates for Students with Learning Disabilities?
Bouman, Sam H.
ProQuest LLC, Ph.D. Dissertation, The Claremont Graduate University
Response-to-intervention (RTI) as applied in several California school districts was investigated by analyzing responses to questionnaires completed by 190 school psychologists representing 142 school districts. This analysis targeted the depth and breadth of RTI in these public K-12 school districts. A majority (80.7%) of the respondents indicated that their school districts are engaged in some level of RTI development. However, only 9.8% mostly or fully standardized RTI throughout district schools. Based on t tests, the percentage rate of overall placements for specific learning disabilities was found to have "decreased" significantly from the 2002-2003 to the 2007-2008 school years, p less than 0.01. However, school districts that had implemented RTI were not found to have significantly lower placement rates than non-RTI districts. African American students' disproportionality in special education significantly "increased" over the same 5-year period, p less than 0.01, even with RTI. Overrepresented Hispanic students remained within statistical parameters. Underrepresented White students' weighted risk ratios decreased significantly over the same 5-year period, p less than 0.01. Recommendations based on step-wise multiple regressions to strengthen the RTI model are given (e.g., training teachers in RTI, especially Tier 1, consistent progress monitoring, and early reading screening). Only 2.2% of the respondent school districts use a protocol method in the student study team. This research supports the work of Fuchs, which indicated that the protocol method is more effective than problem solving because there is too much trial and error in problem solving. These and other key variables are discussed in relation to how to strengthen the fidelity of RTI and how to reduce disproportionality of African American and Hispanic students and overall placement rates of students with specific learning disabilities. Even though there was not a significant difference between RTI and non-RTI districts in terms of lower placement rates, the means were lower but not at the significant level. This likely is more from the effect of inconsistent implementation of the components of RTI throughout all district schools rather than RTI not being effective. On the contrary, RTI is worth keeping and this research gives strong empirical underpinnings into key components for successful RTI implementation. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:]
ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway, P.O. Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Tel: 800-521-0600; Web site:
Publication Type: Dissertations/Theses - Doctoral Dissertations
Education Level: Elementary Secondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: California