**ERIC Number:**ED520639

**Record Type:**Non-Journal

**Publication Date:**2010

**Pages:**160

**Abstractor:**As Provided

**Reference Count:**0

**ISBN:**ISBN-978-1-1241-6209-6

**ISSN:**N/A

Quantum Steganography and Quantum Error-Correction

Shaw, Bilal A.

ProQuest LLC, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Southern California

Quantum error-correcting codes have been the cornerstone of research in quantum information science (QIS) for more than a decade. Without their conception, quantum computers would be a footnote in the history of science. When researchers embraced the idea that we live in a world where the effects of a noisy environment cannot completely be stripped away from the operations of a quantum computer, the natural way forward was to think about importing classical coding theory into the quantum arena to give birth to quantum error-correcting codes which could help in mitigating the debilitating effects of decoherence on quantum data. We first talk about the six-qubit quantum error-correcting code and show its connections to entanglement-assisted error-correcting coding theory and then to subsystem codes. This code bridges the gap between the five-qubit (perfect) and Steane codes. We discuss two methods to encode one qubit into six physical qubits. Each of the two examples corrects an arbitrary single-qubit error. The first example is a degenerate six-qubit quantum error-correcting code. We explicitly provide the stabilizer generators, encoding circuits, codewords, logical Pauli operators, and logical CNOT operator for this code. We also show how to convert this code into a non-trivial subsystem code that saturates the subsystem Singleton bound. We then prove that a six-qubit code without entanglement assistance cannot simultaneously possess a Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) stabilizer and correct an arbitrary single-qubit error. A corollary of this result is that the Steane seven-qubit code is the smallest single-error correcting CSS code. Our second example is the construction of a non-degenerate six-qubit CSS entanglement-assisted code. This code uses one bit of entanglement (an ebit) shared between the sender (Alice) and the receiver (Bob) and corrects an arbitrary single-qubit error. The code we obtain is globally equivalent to the Steane seven-qubit code and thus corrects an arbitrary error on the receiver's half of the ebit as well. We prove that this code is the smallest code with a CSS structure that uses only one ebit and corrects an arbitrary single-qubit error on the sender's side. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages for each of the two codes. In the second half of this thesis we explore the yet uncharted and relatively undiscovered area of quantum steganography. Steganography is the process of hiding secret information by embedding it in an "innocent" message. We present protocols for hiding quantum information in a codeword of a quantum error-correcting code passing through a channel. Using either a shared classical secret key or shared entanglement Alice disguises her information as errors in the channel. Bob can retrieve the hidden information, but an eavesdropper (Eve) with the power to monitor the channel, but without the secret key, cannot distinguish the message from channel noise. We analyze how difficult it is for Eve to detect the presence of secret messages, and estimate rates of steganographic communication and secret key consumption for certain protocols. We also provide an example of how Alice hides quantum information in the perfect code when the underlying channel between Bob and her is the depolarizing channel. Using this scheme Alice can hide up to four stego-qubits. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page: http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.]

Descriptors: Information Science, Programming, Information Theory, Computer Science, Computer Security, Computer System Design, Computers, Coding, Information Technology

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**Publication Type:**Dissertations/Theses - Doctoral Dissertations

**Education Level:**N/A

**Audience:**N/A

**Language:**English

**Sponsor:**N/A

**Authoring Institution:**N/A