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ERIC Number: ED519987
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2010
Pages: 210
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 0
ISBN: ISBN-978-1-1242-5908-6
Examining Instructional Efficiency among Flashcard Drill and Practice Methods with a Sample of First Grade Students
Eveleigh, Elisha Lynn
ProQuest LLC, Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University
Significant number of children in the United States have difficulty learning basic reading skills. The majority of children referred to school psychologists are referred for reading concerns. Unfortunately, the gap between good and poor readers widens over time as more advanced reading skills are built upon basic reading skills. Children with reading difficulties need to be identified early and receive proper reading interventions in order to catch up with their peers. Due to factors such as curricular demands and large class sizes, teachers have limited time to implement academic interventions in the classroom. Interventions that are both effective and efficient allow teachers to provide the greatest amount of instruction within the least amount of time. Further research is needed to identify instructional techniques that are not only effective but are efficient for helping children achieve desired academic outcomes. The current study examined the instructional effectiveness and efficiency of two word reading interventions on the number of words read accurately and the learning rate of student participants. Specifically, an alternating treatments design was used to compare the effects of the traditional drill and practice technique (presenting only unknown words) and an incremental rehearsal technique (the interspersal of one unknown word between an increasing number of known words). This study extended previous research findings of the positive outcomes of the interventions by holding constant the amount of time allowed for each intervention as opposed to the number of trials provided for each unknown word. Retention, maintenance, generalization, and social validity were also assessed. Results indicated increased word reading for all five students who participated in the study. Specifically, traditional drill and practice was found to be most effective and efficient on measures of retention and maintenance. Incremental rehearsal was found to be most effective and efficient on a measure of word generalization. Slightly more students preferred the traditional drill and practice intervention. Social validity results indicated that both instructional techniques are a socially valid way to teach word reading skills to students who are behind their peers in reading. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:]
ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway, P.O. Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Tel: 800-521-0600; Web site:
Publication Type: Dissertations/Theses - Doctoral Dissertations
Education Level: Elementary Education; Grade 1
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A