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ERIC Number: ED518224
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2011
Pages: 9
Abstractor: ERIC
Reference Count: 12
Games Schools Play: How Schools near the Proficiency Threshold Respond to Accountability Pressures under No Child Left Behind
Wong, Vivian C.
Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness
The purpose of this paper is to explore state and school responses to accountability pressures under the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). Section 2 presents a framework for summarizing the many positive and negative ways in which states, schools, and teachers respond to accountability pressures under NCLB. Section 3 focuses on state accountability policies that in recent years have become more relaxed in allowing schools to lower proficiency thresholds, but also more stringent in the specificity of their requirements. The paper argues that schools with proficiency scores just below state accountability cutoffs have the most incentive to engage in gaming practices, and that these schools have capitalized on recent changes in state policies to introduce new methods for gaming. Using data from Pennsylvania, the paper provides empirical evidence that schools just below the state threshold engage in gaming practices and suggest mechanisms that these schools employ. (Contains 1 figure and 1 table.)
Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness. 2040 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208. Tel: 202-495-0920; Fax: 202-640-4401; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: Elementary Education; Middle Schools
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness (SREE)
Identifiers - Location: Pennsylvania
Identifiers - Laws, Policies, & Programs: No Child Left Behind Act 2001