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ERIC Number: ED517790
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2006
Pages: 68
Abstractor: ERIC
Reference Count: 123
Research-Based Recommendations for Instruction and Academic Interventions. Practical Guidelines for the Education of English Language Learners. Book 1 of 3
Francis, David J.; Rivera, Mabel; Lesaux, Nonie; Kieffer, Michael; Rivera, Hector
Center on Instruction
The fundamental principles underlying the "No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001" focus on high standards of learning and instruction with the goal of increasing academic achievement--reading and math in particular--within all identified subgroups in the K-12 population. One of these subgroups is the growing population of English Language Learners (ELLs). NCLB has increased awareness of the academic needs and achievement of ELLs as schools, districts, and states are held accountable for teaching English and content knowledge to this special and heterogeneous group of learners. However, ELLs present a unique set of challenges to educators because of the central role played by academic language proficiency in the acquisition and assessment of content-area knowledge. Educators have raised multiple questions about effective practices and programs to support the academic achievement of all ELLs, including questions about classroom instruction and targeted interventions in reading and math, the special needs of adolescent newcomers, and the inclusion of ELLs in large-scale assessments. While ELLs vary in their academic outcomes and many thrive in U.S. schools, there is indeed a significant proportion--whether or not formally designated Limited English Proficient (LEP) or English Language Learner (ELL) and thus receiving support services for language development--who struggle considerably in developing English proficiency, academic skills, and meeting grade-level standards. This document was written primarily with this latter group in mind. Like any other population of learners with academic difficulties, struggling ELLs require effective instructional approaches and interventions to prevent further difficulties and to augment and support their academic development. When designing an instructional approach or intervention, educators must consider several factors in addition to the content, such as the format for delivery, the match between the learner's difficulty and the approach or intervention, and whether it is meant to be a class-wide approach or targeted for small-group or one-on-one settings. For ELLs, it is especially important to consider the role of second language proficiency in their difficulties as well as in their ability to profit from the planned instruction or intervention. This document provides evidence-based recommendations for policymakers, administrators, and teachers in K-12 settings who seek to make informed decisions about instruction and academic interventions for ELLs. The domains of focus include reading and mathematics, and the recommendations apply to both a class-wide instructional format and individualized, targeted interventions, depending on the population and the goals of the instruction. (Contains 58 endnotes.) [For related reports, see "Research-Based Recommendations for Serving Adolescent Newcomers. Practical Guidelines for the Education of English Language Learners. Book 2 of 3" (ED517791) and "Research-Based Recommendations for the Use of Accommodations in Large-Scale Assessments. Practical Guidelines for the Education of English Language Learners. Book 3 of 3" (ED517792).]
Center on Instruction. Available from: RMC Research Corporation. 1000 Market Street Building 2, Portsmouth, NH 03801. Tel: 800-258-0802; Tel: 603-422-8888; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Books; Guides - Classroom - Teacher
Education Level: Elementary Secondary Education
Audience: Teachers; Administrators; Policymakers
Language: English
Sponsor: Department of Education (ED)
Authoring Institution: Center on Instruction; University of Houston, Texas Institute for Measurement, Evaluation, and Statistics
Identifiers - Laws, Policies, & Programs: No Child Left Behind Act 2001
IES Cited: ED497258; ED560752; ED546480