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ERIC Number: ED515453
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2009
Pages: 173
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 0
ISBN: ISBN-978-1-1096-5846-0
Examining the Association between School Context, Educational Capacity, and Student Achievement: A Regression Discontinuity Approach
Moriyama, Karen Ito
ProQuest LLC, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Hawai'i at Manoa
In this era of accountability, there is a need to fairly and accurately document the ways that educational systems contribute to student achievement. This study used the regression discontinuity design within a multilevel framework as an alternative approach to estimate school effectiveness by examining the effect of the value added to students' learning through one "additional" year of schooling. The purposes were to determine (a) the effect of (one year of) schooling on student outcomes in reading and math, (b) whether the effect of schooling differed between schools, and (c) whether school contextual and process factors affect the magnitude of the "additional-year" outcome. Included in this study were 12,342 fourth-grade students and 12,588 fifth-grade students from 179 elementary schools. The findings indicated that regression discontinuity is a promising approach to differentiating school effectiveness and the structures and processes that influence outcomes. First, the average size of the year-of-schooling effect was significant; suggesting that the regression discontinuity design may be valid in assessing differences between schools in student year-to-year learning without having to use a longitudinal cohort to assess student learning gains per year. Second, the year-of-schooling slope was less affected or biased by student-level variables (i.e., socioeconomic status) than achievement level, suggesting that differences between schools could be more fairly and accurately estimated based on their educational efforts and not background characteristics (i.e., socioeconomic status). Third, there were positive and significant effects of teacher characteristics on achievement (licensed and experienced teachers) and on the year-of-schooling outcome (stable teachers). Finally, school academic processes (i.e., educational capacity) were found to significantly and positively affect achievement and year-of-schooling outcomes; thus, schools can be differentiated in terms of their intended impact on achievement. The study concludes that regression discontinuity holds promise for providing a cost-effective, accurate, fair, and equitable means of assessing schooling effects on student achievement and in assessing how intended educational processes may contribute to yearly learning effects across schools. Identifying effective schools and school factors related to effective schools could help support school improvement, as well as hold schools accountable for results more fairly. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:
ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway, P.O. Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Tel: 800-521-0600; Web site:
Publication Type: Dissertations/Theses - Doctoral Dissertations
Education Level: Elementary Education; Grade 4; Grade 5
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A