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ERIC Number: ED515257
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2009
Pages: 213
Abstractor: As Provided
ISBN: ISBN-978-1-1097-0976-6
ASL, Total Communication and Oralism: Identifying Shared Characteristics of School-Based Writing Intervention Programs for Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students, K-6
Reed, Carolyn Mascia
ProQuest LLC, Ed.D. Dissertation, Seton Hall University
To be effective in providing a writing literacy program, regardless of communication approaches, educators should establish program-wide conditions that promote English writing literacy over time. The researcher's purpose for this study was to identify shared characteristics of writing intervention programs in three different communication school settings for deaf and hard-of-hearing students, K-6: American Sign Language (ASL), Total Communication, and Oralism. The researcher used a descriptive, non-experimental, qualitative design to interpret meaningful patterns and themes of participant's experiences with writing literacy, and to describe the shared characteristics of writing intervention programs in three schools for the deaf and hard-of-hearing. Information gathered for this study came from case study analysis, semi-structured interviews with teacher and administrator participants, and classroom observations of teachers during writing literacy lessons. Through content analyses, the researcher derived the following shared characteristics: The development, implementation, and assessment of writing literacy programs were affected by the education environs of each school regardless of communication approaches. School #1 was a day school for deaf and hard-of-hearing students. Since there were no other collaborative relationships with other school districts or host school sites, School #1 had the flexibility and opportunity to investigate a partnership with a university Literacy Collaborative. Although this enabled a more cohesive school-wide community in their approach to implementing a writing literacy program, the components of the partnership were not all generalizable to teaching deaf students. Educators were challenged in identifying those components that would be the best fit for program. In School #2, the program for deaf and hard-of-hearing students was located within a host school site with an array of placement options from small group instructed classes to fully mainstream classes. The teachers in the small group instructed classes had different experiences with writing literacy instruction, curriculum implementation and design, use of materials, and collaboration opportunities with general education teachers, than did teachers of the deaf and hard-of-hearing assigned to collaborative mainstream classes or fully mainstream classes. In School #3, maintaining a school culture, values and beliefs about a writing literacy program was a challenge since the school had experienced a dramatic shift in their school identity in the past ten years in part due to a decrease in student population and to an increase in a complex mix of student needs. The education environs affected the school culture, values and beliefs in establishing a school-wide writing literacy program. Responses from participants revealed the complexity of providing a writing literacy curriculum to meet the needs of deaf students with additional disabilities. The implementations of assessment practices of students' writing at the classroom and school levels were affected by school culture, school leadership, academic quality, and professional development in each school. Results of this study should help guide writing literacy program design, implementation and school-site evaluations, as well as promote collaborative partnerships across education communities and communication continuums in schools/programs for deaf and hard-of-hearing students. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:]
ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway, P.O. Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Tel: 800-521-0600; Web site:
Publication Type: Dissertations/Theses - Doctoral Dissertations
Education Level: Elementary Education; Grade 1; Grade 2; Grade 3; Grade 4; Grade 5; Grade 6; Kindergarten
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A