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ERIC Number: ED513386
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2009
Pages: 225
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 0
ISBN: ISBN-978-1-1092-7219-2
Using Virtual Manipulatives with and without Symbolic Representation to Teach First Grade Multi-Digit Addition
Haistings, Jeanine L.
ProQuest LLC, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Kansas
Technology and mathematics. manipulatives have been brought together in a new format. This joining has resulted in virtual manipulatives that are available on the Internet for students. Virtual manipulatives have been defined as computer based renditions of common mathematics manipulatives and tools. Just as a physical object can be flipped, turned, slid and rotated, the visual representation of the object on the computer screen can also be moved in similar ways by using a computer command or mouse action. The purpose of this study was to compare two different versions of one specific virtual manipulative and the effect their use had on student learning. The two different versions of the same virtual manipulative were used as instructional tools during a unit on whole number addition. One version of Base Blocks Addition was found on the Internet and contained the symbolic representation of the addition problem. The alternate version of Base Blocks Addition was custom made for this study and did not contain the symbolic representation of the addition problem. A group of 71 first grade students and four teachers participated in a four week instructional unit taught by the researcher. The students spent two weeks with each version of Base Blocks Addition. Pretests and posttests were given during each phase of the study to investigate conceptual and procedural understanding. A third test was given six weeks after the instruction to study retention. Eight students were interviewed to explore students. views of virtual manipulatives. Teachers were interviewed and given a survey to study teachers. opinions of using this new instructional tool. Statistical analysis revealed no significant difference between the two groups of students during either phase of the study. Qualitative data and a study of growth in mean scores from pretest to posttest did expose two interesting additional conclusions. For the students in this study, it can be concluded that using virtual manipulatives without symbolic representation before virtual manipulatives with symbolic representation may have enhanced conceptual understanding. It can be concluded that when these students were presented with two representations, the symbolic representation and the virtual representation in this study, a strong connection was developed. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:]
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Publication Type: Dissertations/Theses - Doctoral Dissertations
Education Level: Elementary Education; Grade 1
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A