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ERIC Number: ED513213
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2009
Pages: 96
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 0
ISBN: ISBN-978-1-1092-6493-7
Stereotype Threat in Mathematics: Female High School Students in All-Girl and Coeducation Schools
Cruz-Duran, Emma
ProQuest LLC, Psy.D. Dissertation, St. John's University (New York)
Although great strides have been made in the number of women who are now employed, there are still many professions that continue to experience a dearth of female employees (Bandura, Barbaranelli, Caprara, & Pastorelli, 2001; Steele, 2003). Science, technology, engineering, and applied mathematic domains (commonly referred to as STEM) have predominantly been considered masculine and, as a result, are considered to be possible employment tracks by only a few women (Eccles, 1994). This state of affairs is greatly influenced by women's perception of stereotypes in these disciplines. The current researcher examined girls' math stereotype beliefs, math self-efficacy, expectations in math, and math interest as well as how these variables relate to school type (i.e., all-girl vs. co-ed), to provide a better understanding of how these employment differences develop. Four hundred and fifteen girls completed surveys relating to these variables and an eight item math task. A small subgroup was randomly chosen to complete a follow-up interview to gain additional qualitative information. As predicted, school type was related to a number of variables. Girls in all-girls' schools demonstrated higher math grades in school, performed higher on the given math task, and endorsed fewer stereotypes. The importance of the connection between school type and stereotype endorsement is enhanced when considering that stereotype endorsement significantly predicted a student's self-efficacy in mathematics. Stereotype condition (i.e., being presented with fair/unfair information) did not have an effect on any variable and may be due to the limits in the way the condition information was presented. Expectancy for performance and interest in math careers were significantly mediated by actual performance and math interest. More specifically, students who reported higher expectations for performance did better on a math task and reported greater interest in math. In turn, higher scores on these two variables were connected to increased interest in math careers. The meditational models were consistent across the samples, suggesting that these variables function independent of school type; therefore, findings have important implications for girls' math education in both school settings. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:
ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway, P.O. Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Tel: 800-521-0600; Web site:
Publication Type: Dissertations/Theses - Doctoral Dissertations
Education Level: High Schools
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A