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ERIC Number: ED511825
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2010-Sep
Pages: 24
Abstractor: ERIC
Book Clubs. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report
What Works Clearinghouse
Book clubs provide a reading framework designed to supplement or organize regular classroom reading instruction for students in grades K-8. This review focuses on "Book Club" (Raphael & McMahon, 1994) and "Literature Circles" (Daniels, 2002), but it uses the general lowercase) term "book clubs" to embrace both "Literature Circles" and "Book Club" activities, as well as small-group discussion activities that closely resemble either strategy but may leave out one or more key elements of these originally conceived instructional paradigms. The book club framework aims to improve students' comprehension skills and ability to interpret and think critically about text. The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) identified 284 studies of book clubs for adolescent learners that were published or released between 1989 and 2009. Eleven studies are within the scope of the Adolescent Literacy review protocol but do not meet WWC evidence standards. Eight studies do not establish that the comparison group was comparable to the treatment group prior to the start of the intervention. Two studies have confounding factors, such as combining book clubs with other interventions, which makes it impossible to attribute the observed effect solely to book clubs. One single-case design study did not meet the minimum threshold of at least three attempts to demonstrate an intervention effect. Two hundred seventy-three studies fall outside the Adolescent Literacy review protocol. One hundred thirty-one studies have an ineligible study design. One hundred eighteen studies do not have a comparison group. Thirteen studies are meta-analyses or literature reviews. One hundred forty-two studies are outside the scope of the Adolescent Literacy review protocol for reasons other than study design. Forty-nine studies do not measure the effectiveness of book clubs in a manner defined by the WWC. Forty-two studies do not evaluate the impact of book clubs on student literacy outcomes. Thirty-five studies feature a sample that does not include students in grades 4-12. Fifteen studies feature a sample that is less than 50% general education students. One study occurred outside the geographical area covered by the Adolescent Literacy review. (Contains 5 footnotes.)
What Works Clearinghouse. 550 12th Street SW, Washington, DC 20024; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: Elementary Secondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: What Works Clearinghouse (ED)
IES Funded: Yes
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A