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ERIC Number: ED508308
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2010-Feb
Pages: N/A
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: N/A
ISBN: N/A
ISSN: N/A
Beyond the Classroom: Using Title IX to Measure the Return to High School Sports. NBER Working Paper No. 15728
Stevenson, Betsey
National Bureau of Economic Research
Between 1972 and 1978 U.S. high schools rapidly increased their female athletic participation rates--to approximately the same level as their male athletic participation rates--in order to comply with Title IX, a policy change that provides a unique quasi-experiment in female athletic participation. This paper examines the causal implications of this expansion in female sports participation by using variation in the level of boys' athletic participation across states before Title IX to instrument for the change in girls' athletic participation. Analysis of differences in outcomes across states in changes between pre- and post-cohorts reveals that a 10-percentage point rise in state-level female sports participation generates a 1 percentage point increase in female college attendance and a 1 to 2 percentage point rise in female labor force participation. Furthermore, greater opportunities to play sports leads to greater female participation in previously male-dominated occupations, particularly in high-skill occupations.
National Bureau of Economic Research. 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138-5398. Tel: 617-588-0343; Web site: http://www.nber.org
Publication Type: Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: High Schools; Secondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: National Bureau of Economic Research
Identifiers - Laws, Policies, & Programs: Education Amendments 1972; Title IX Education Amendments 1972