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ERIC Number: ED507142
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2002-Jan
Pages: 127
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 77
Rauding Theory and the TOEFL Sub-Tests
Lee, Gabriel A.
Online Submission, Ed.D. Dissertation, Temple University
Rauding theory states that two factors, accuracy and rate, explain nearly all the variance in the general reading ability of American schoolchildren (Carver, 1999). Using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) and regression, this dissertation investigated to what extent the Rauding model could be applied to 92 Japanese university aged young adults studying English as a second language. The TOEFL sub-tests defined the latent factor efficiency level (EL). Two vocabulary tests defined the latent factor accuracy level (AL), two speed of comprehension tests defined the latent factor rate level (RL). A modified version of the Woodcock Non-Word Recognition test and a phonological awareness test defined the latent variable pronunciation level (PL). Results indicated moderate support for the Rauding model. In the SEM analysis, a non-significant chi-square and a CFI of 0.98 indicated good model fit. 62% of the individual differences in the TOEFL sub-tests (EL) could be explained by regarding AL and RL as correlated factors. PL, on the other hand, did not correlate with EL at all. In addition, RL correlated with AL at 0.66 p less than 0.05. The only aberration with Carver's Rauding model was that the correlation between PL and RL was non-significant at p less than 0.05. A regression analysis reconfirmed the results of the SEM analysis. An indicant of EL, defined as (RL + AL) / 2, predicted 62% of the variance in the TOEFL sub-tests. Finally, a measure of cognitive speed significantly correlated with RL at p less than 0.05. These results have four main implications. First, the Rauding model needs to be investigated further in the context of second language acquisition. Second, language proficiency, or performance on tests of language ability, can be defined as efficiency level. Third, performance differences in language tests purporting to measure reading and listening proficiency may be attributable to the latent factor RL, not PL. Finally, instruction focusing on improving RL should be incorporated into the Japanese national curriculum. The following appendices are included: (1) Covariance Matrix and Raw Data; and (2) Tests. (Contains 9 tables and 7 figures.)
Publication Type: Dissertations/Theses - Doctoral Dissertations; Information Analyses; Reports - Research
Education Level: Higher Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Japan
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Test of English as a Foreign Language