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ERIC Number: ED506361
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2009
Pages: 4
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 4
One-to-One Tutoring for Reading in Grade One: Is It Beneficial for All Students?
Incorvaia, Aubrey
Center for Child and Family Policy, Duke University (NJ1)
Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent disorders among school-age children, occurring in 3 percent to 12 percent of adolescents in the United States (Jakobson & Kirkas, 2007; Shulman, 2008). Recognizing and understanding the disorder is complicated by the fact that between 10 percent and 20 percent of people with ADHD also have a learning disability (Shulman, 2008). Adverse consequences for those with ADHD may include: underachievement, lower quality of life, increased reckless and dangerous driving habits, and increased risk of medical and dental emergencies (Shulman, 2008). These effects impose costs on the people with ADHD, their families and society. While two-thirds of the public is familiar with the term ADHD, many do not comprehend the condition's intricacies or know about promising treatment methods (McLeod, Fettes, Jensen, et al., 2007). Children diagnosed with ADHD generally exhibit symptoms of both inattention (e.g., difficulty sustaining attention to tasks) and hyperactivity-impulsivity (e.g., difficulty remaining seated) to a far greater extent than their peers, although some children with ADHD only exhibit one type of symptom or the other. Although hyperactivity may be the most recognizable symptom, recent research suggests that children's academic achievement difficulties are most directly linked to inattentive behaviors (Jakobson & Kirkas, 2007). Furthermore, the research suggests that children who demonstrate attention problems are at risk for poor academic performance, whether or not they have a clinical diagnosis of ADHD (Rabiner & Malone, 2007). This brief draws policy implications and makes recommendations for further research from "The Impact of Tutoring on Early Reading Achievement for Children With and Without Attention Problems" by David L. Rabiner, Patrick S. Malone and the Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group (2004). [For the full report, see EJ696298.]
Center for Child and Family Policy, Duke University. 257 Sanford Institute of Public Policy, P.O. Box 90264, Durham, NC 27708-0264. Tel: 919-613-7319; Fax: 919-681-1533; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: Elementary Education; Grade 1
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy