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ERIC Number: ED506182
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2009-Jun
Pages: 42
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 26
Distant, On-line Education: Effects, Principles and Practices
Clardy, Alan
Online Submission
The purpose of this paper was to identify the characteristics and history of online education, to examine research on the effectiveness of online learning, and to note the principles and practices indicated for maximizing the effectiveness of online learning. Leading articles and studies on online education were identified and examined for this literature review. Historically, online education is located within a longer tradition of distance education. The primary distinction between campus-based education and distance education is noted, along with distinctions between computer-assisted instruction, online learning and hybrid courses. After listing the presumed pros and cons of online education, the argument about whether online learning is technologically dependent is raised. Prototypical studies of research about online learning are examined and used to isolate fundamental problems in carrying out research comparing online vs. campus-based education. Major meta-analytic studies are then reviewed. The conclusions of these studies are several: there are wide variances in the effectiveness of both campus-based and online education; online learning is as good on average as campus-based programs; and the best format may be a hybrid or combined version. Standards for delivering online educational programs are produced as recommendations, based on integrating standards issued by different disciplinary bodies. The paper concludes with a series of issues about online education and learning that need to be addressed. One appendix is included: (1) Lessons from the Literature. Derived from Tallent-Runnels, et al. (2006) and Grandzol and Grandzol (2006). (Contains 4 tables and 1 endnote.)
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A