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ERIC Number: ED506004
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2009-Jul
Pages: 43
Abstractor: ERIC
Reducing Stereotype Threat in Classrooms: A Review of Social-Psychological Intervention Studies on Improving the Achievement of Black Students. Issues & Answers. REL 2009-076
Aronson, Joshua; Cohen, Geoffrey; McColskey, Wendy
Regional Educational Laboratory Southeast
Stereotype threat arises from a fear among members of a group of reinforcing negative stereotypes about the intellectual ability of the group. This report identifies three randomized controlled trial studies that use classroom-based strategies to reduce stereotype threat and improve the academic performance of Black students, narrowing their achievement gap with White students. The three studies found positive impacts on the academic performance of Black students for the following social-psychological strategies: (1) Reinforce for students the idea that intelligence is expandable and, like a muscle, grows stronger when worked; (2) Teach students that their difficulties in school are often part of a normal learning curve or adjustment process, rather than something unique to them or their racial group; and (3) Help students reflect on other values in their lives beyond school that are sources of self-worth for them. It is noted that while the strategies use established procedures that can be emulated by teachers and administrators, they also require thought and care on the part of schools and teachers in applying them in their particular situations. Limitations of the studies are also identified. Three appendices are included: (1) Research on the Relationship between Stereotype Threat and Black Students' Academic Performance; (2) Methodology; and (3) Article Screening and Study Quality Review Protocols. (Contains 2 notes, 3 figures, 2 boxes and 7 tables.) ["Reducing Stereotype Threat in Classrooms: A Review of Social-Psychological Intervention Studies on Improving the Achievement of Black Students" was written with contributions from Bianca Montrosse, Karla Lewis and Kathleen Mooney. For the summary report, see ED506003.]
Regional Educational Laboratory Southeast at SERVE Center. University of North Carolina at Greensboro, 915 Northridge Street, Greensboro, NC 27403. Tel: 800-755-3277; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: Grade 7; Middle Schools
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: Regional Educational Laboratory Southeast (ED)
IES Funded: Yes
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A