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ERIC Number: ED505966
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2008
Pages: 3
Abstractor: ERIC
Reference Count: 5
Homework: What the Research Says. Research Brief
Cooper, Harris
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics
Opinions vary on whether or not homework has positive effects on achievement. In the literature, the author found six studies conducted between 1987 and 2003 that compared homeworkers with no-homeworkers, and equated students by using either: (1) random assignments of students to conditions; or (2) statistical controls or by matching a student in one group with a similar student in the other group while eliminating students who did not have a good match. The results provided a clear picture that homework can be effective in improving students' scores on unit tests, that is, the class tests that are administered at the end of a topic unit. Second-grade students who did home-work did better than no-homework peers on number places; those in third and fourth grade did better on English skills and vocabulary; those in fifth grade, on social studies; high school students, on American history; and twelfth graders, on Shakespeare. Across five studies, the average (fiftieth-percentile) homework doer had a higher unit test score than 73 percent of students not doing homework. However, correlational studies suggest the homework-achievement link for young children on broader measures of achievement appears to be weak.
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. 1906 Association Drive, Reston, VA 20191-1502. Tel: 800-235-7566; Tel: 703-620-3702; Fax: 703-476-2970; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Education; Elementary Secondary Education; High Schools
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics