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ERIC Number: ED505352
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1998
Pages: 20
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 13
ISBN: N/A
ISSN: N/A
A Mutually Adaptive Learning Paradigm (MALP) for Hmong Students
Marshall, Helaine W.
Online Submission
Numerous studies (Goldstein, 1985; Rumbaut and Ima, 1988; Walker, 1989; Trueba, Jacobs, and Kirton, 1990 and Walker-Moffat, 1995) have found that the Hmong have extreme difficulties adjusting to the American educational system as compared with other language minority groups. Underlying this difficulty is a fundamental conflict between learning in traditional Hmong cultural settings and learning in American classroom settings. Despite this conflict, many Hmong students have successfully negotiated our school systems. Most of them did this, however, by compensation strategies, such as memorizing, repeating, spending extended periods of time attempting to master large amounts of material, and receiving extensive help from friends and siblings, rather than by mastering the requirements of successful learning in a formal educational setting. Shuter (1985) refers to this phenomenon as residual orality. This paper will demonstrate that success in our educational system constitutes a paradigm shift for the Hmong learner, a shift from the Hmong learner's paradigm to the formal educational learning paradigm. The position taken here is that active participation in formal education is itself an important part of the acculturation process, requiring the building of a cluster of formal schemata having to do with learning in a specific setting. The paper first examines the conditions, processes, and activities characteristic of each setting and then outlines how teachers can use their knowledge of these two conflicting paradigms to design a Mutually Adaptive Learning Paradigm (MALP) that can help Hmong learners succeed academically. Classroom applications are included to demonstrate how the Mutually Adaptive Learning Paradigm can be effective with Hmong learners. (Contains 3 figures and 4 endnotes.) [This paper was originally published in: "Cultural Circles" (formerly "JIELMS") v3 p135-149 Sum 1998.]
Publication Type: Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Wisconsin