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ERIC Number: ED504825
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2009-Mar
Pages: 70
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 89
National Efforts to Bring Reform to Scale in America's High-Poverty Elementary and Secondary Schools: Outcomes and Implications
Borman, Geoffrey D.
Center on Education Policy
Since the 1960s, there have been continuing federal efforts to bring reform to scale in high-poverty elementary and secondary schools across the U.S. This paper traces the evolution of these efforts and discusses their impacts on achievement outcomes. Drawing on evidence from meta-analyses of the Title I evaluation literature and the Comprehensive School Reform research base, four general themes emerge. First, there has been a clear developmental trajectory of these efforts from 1965 to the present that has resulted in historical improvements in disadvantaged students' outcomes. Second, although the achievement effects have been somewhat modest, the evidence suggests that these national efforts are capable of contributing to large-scale improvements in high-poverty schools. Third, there is great variability across schools and time in the outcomes of these reform efforts that can be explained by both the level of implementation of reforms and by differences in the methods researchers have used to estimate their effects. Fourth, high schools have historically been underserved by federal policies to reform high-poverty schools, but growing interest among policymakers and accumulating evidence related to "relevance," "rigor," and "relationships" might help direct future investments toward improving America's high schools. A number of promising models for reforming the nation's high-poverty schools exist, but higher quality studies and better standards of evidence are needed to help advance the scale-up of scientifically based interventions. (Contains 2 figures and 4 footnotes.)
Center on Education Policy. 1001 Connecticut Avenue NW Suite 522, Washington, DC 20036. Tel: 202-822-8065; Fax: 202-822-6008; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Information Analyses; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: Elementary Secondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: Center on Education Policy
Identifiers - Laws, Policies, & Programs: No Child Left Behind Act 2001