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ERIC Number: ED503466
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2008-Dec
Pages: 15
Abstractor: ERIC
Reference Count: 118
Reading Recovery[R]. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report
What Works Clearinghouse
"Reading Recovery"[R] is a short-term tutoring intervention intended to serve the lowest-achieving (bottom 20%) first-grade students. The goals of "Reading Recovery"[R] are to promote literacy skills, reduce the number of first-grade students who are struggling to read, and prevent long-term reading difficulties. "Reading Recovery"[R] supplements classroom teaching with one-to-one tutoring sessions, generally conducted as pull-out sessions during the school day. Tutoring, which is conducted by trained "Reading Recovery"[R] teachers, takes place daily for 30 minutes over 12-20 weeks. A total of 106 studies reviewed by the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) investigated the effects of "Reading Recovery"[R]. Four studies of "Reading Recovery"[R] meet WWC evidence standards: (1) Baenen, Bernhole, Dulaney, & Banks (1997); (2) Pinnell, DeFord, & Lyons (1988); (3) Pinnell, Lyons, DeFord, Bryk, & Seltzer (1994); and (4) Schwartz (2005.) One additional study, Iverson & Tunmer (1993), meets WWC evidence standards with reservations. The five studies included approximately 700 first-grade students in more than 46 schools across the United States. Based on these five studies, the WWC considers the extent of evidence for "Reading Recovery"[R] to be medium to large for alphabetics, small for fluency and comprehension, and medium to large for general reading achievement. (Contains 12 footnotes.) [This report has been updated to include reviews of 28 studies that have been released since 2005. Of the additional studies, 16 were not within the scope of the protocol and 12 were within the scope of the protocol but did not meet evidence standards. A complete list and disposition of all studies reviewed are provided in the references. For previous version, see ED495731.]
What Works Clearinghouse. P.O. Box 2393, Princeton, NJ 08543-2393. Tel: 866-503-6114; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: Elementary Education; Grade 1; Primary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: What Works Clearinghouse (ED)