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ERIC Number: ED502593
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2005-Apr
Pages: 34
Abstractor: ERIC
Reference Count: 58
ISBN: ISBN-1-9038-8099-8
Education and Conflict: Research and Research Possibilities
Tomlinson, Kathryn; Benefield, Pauline
National Foundation for Educational Research
This project aimed to undertake a scoping study of existent and potential research into the relationship between education and conflict, peace building and post-conflict situations, both nationally and internationally. Within this aim, the project investigates the main research dimensions of this area, identifies gaps in the research literature, summarises key findings that emerge from the literature and suggests future areas of research. Keyword searches of educational databases were conducted in order to identify relevant materials, published between 1997 and 2004. Those items that were considered key texts or those that were easily accessible were read in depth. The project did not aim to review the literature but to identify the key themes and gaps. One author also attended two conferences and used the Internet to search for additional materials and keep in touch with relevant online discussion groups. It is estimated that half of the 104 million children not attending primary school live in countries in, or recovering from, conflict. Countries that have lost educational infrastructure as a result of war are less likely to reach the Dakar goal of primary Education for All by the year 2015. Reported findings include: (1) The field of education and conflict is in its infancy: (2) There is much material that addresses the challenges involved in providing education in conflict-affected and post-conflict areas; (3) Little research or evaluative evidence exists from education programmes that operate in conflict and post-conflict areas; (4) Research, evaluation and monitoring are often low on the list of priorities for practitioners working in conflict circumstances; (5) Despite the lack of material in the pubic domain, there is a significant amount of unpublished evidence, such as internal reports and evaluations conducted by agencies and consultants working in the field: research and development of practice is hindered by the fact that much of this reflective material is not available more widely; (6) A research-practice gap limits the amount of evidence from which further interventions can be planned by practitioners and policy makers; (7) Those working in the field of education and conflict have made a significant contribution to challenging the assumption that education is always a positive force in areas of conflict, but, due to the research-practice gap, these developments may not feed into theory; (8) Peace education is well documented in the literature on education and conflict, although much of the material is opinion based/descriptive rather than evidence based; (9) At a national level, peace education is closely allied to civic education and citizenship education, but the links between these topics are not well researched in conflict-affected areas; and (10) Although difficulties facing agencies seeking to implement education in conflict-situations are thought to be well known, at least one study revealed that, in practice, the challenges may be different. The report recommends: (1) Expansion of centralised data collection regarding the provision of education in conflict situations; (2) Greater use of the Internet and e-discussions for dissemination of research and network building; (3) Use of "user-friendly" tools in research reports; (4) Greater use of professional researchers to provide consultancy on monitoring and evaluation to practitioners working in the field; and (5) Greater collaboration between practitioner agencies and academics. Three areas are identified for further research to: (1) Look at the role of education as a tool for protection; (2) Investigate the links between citizenship education and peace education; and (3) Examine ways in which governments and NGOs can support schooling initiated by parents. Three appendixes are included: (1) Websites of Interest; (2) Literature Search Strategy; and (3) The Inter-Agency Network on Education in Emergencies (INEE). (Contain 9 footnotes.)
National Foundation for Educational Research. The Mere, Upton Park, Slough, Berkshire, SL1 2DQ, UK. Tel: +44-1753-574123; Fax: +44-1753-637280; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: National Foundation for Educational Research
Identifiers - Location: Senegal (Dakar); United Kingdom (Northern Ireland)