ERIC Number: ED501940
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2007-Aug
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: N/A
Many Children Left Behind? Textbooks and Test Scores in Kenya. NBER Working Paper No. 13300
Glewwe, Paul; Kremer, Michael; Moulin, Sylvie
National Bureau of Economic Research
A randomized evaluation suggests that a program which provided official textbooks to randomly selected rural Kenyan primary schools did not increase test scores for the average student. In contrast, the previous literature suggests that textbook provision has a large impact on test scores. Disaggregating the results by students' initial academic achievement suggests a potential explanation for the lack of an overall impact. Textbooks increased scores for students with high initial academic achievement and increased the probability that the students who had made it to the selective final year of primary school would go on to secondary school. However, students with weaker academic backgrounds did not benefit from the textbooks. Many pupils could not read the textbooks, which are written in English, most students' third language. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the Kenyan education system and curricular materials are oriented to the academically strongest students rather than to typical students. More generally, many students may be left behind in societies that combine 1) a centralized, unified education system; 2) the heterogeneity in student preparation associated with rapid expansion of education; and 3) disproportionate elite power.
Descriptors: Textbooks, Academic Achievement, Foreign Countries, Scores, Rural Schools, Elementary Schools, Program Evaluation, Educational Policy, Developing Nations, Educational Development
National Bureau of Economic Research. 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138-5398. Tel: 617-588-0343; Web site: http://www.nber.org/cgi-bin/get_bars.pl?bar=pub
Publication Type: Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: Elementary Education; Elementary Secondary Education
Authoring Institution: National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA.
Identifiers - Location: Kenya