NotesFAQContact Us
Search Tips
ERIC Number: ED498941
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2007-May
Pages: 301
Abstractor: ERIC
Reference Count: N/A
Evaluation of the Ticket to Work Program: Assessment of Post-Rollout Implementation and Early Impacts, Volume 1
Thornton, Craig; Livermore, Gina; Fraker, Thomas; Stapleton, David; O'Day, Bonnie; Wittenburg, David; Weathers, Robert; Goodman, Nanette; Silva, Tim; Martin, Emily Sama; Gregory, Jesse; Wright, Debra; Mamun, Arif
Mathematica Policy Research, Inc.
Ticket to Work and Self-Sufficiency program (TTW) was designed to enhance the market for services that help disability beneficiaries become economically self-sufficient by providing beneficiaries with a wide range of choices for obtaining services and to give employment-support service providers new financial incentives to serve beneficiaries effectively. Although results suggest that TTW slightly increases beneficiary use of employment services, analysis of trends in TTW payment data suggests that the program would have to induce future shifts in beneficiary behavior that are much larger than what has been observed so far in order to meet Congressional expectations. In assessing the TTW market, this evaluation looked at its three key components: (1) Beneficiary demand for services; (2) Supply of providers willing to serve those beneficiaries; and (3) Social Security Administration (SSA) efforts to facilitate market operations. Findings include: (1) TTW participation continues to grow slowly; (2) Significant growth potential exists for TTW participation; (3) Outreach might substantially stimulate TTW participation; (4) Many beneficiaries, especially Ticket participants, already use services to support employment efforts, including traditional employment supports and health-related services; (5) Participants facing return-to-work challenges other than disability are more likely than others to assign their Tickets to employment networks (ENs) rather than to state vocational rehabilitation agencies (SVRAs); (6) Participants who assign their Tickets to ENs received fewer services than those who assigned their Tickets to SVRAs and were generally less satisfied with services received; (7) TTW has neither substantially expanded the number of private providers that serve beneficiaries nor substantially changed service delivery; (8) Current TTW payment systems provide few financial incentives for ENs to participate actively in the TTW market, although It is noted that proposed new regulations will offer strengthened financial incentives to ENs; (9) SSA has completed TTW rollout and is attempting to address remaining trouble spots, especially payment speed and complexity; (10) Changes in administrative procedures appear to have started a shift toward an SSA culture that is more supportive of return-to-work. Assessing the progress and future of TTW depends fundamentally on expectations for the program. Overall progress toward increasing the employment of people with severe disabilities will require greater acceptance of the idea that many such individuals can successfully support themselves if provided with employment assistance. By sending out Tickets, recruiting new providers, training its staff, and improving how it tracks beneficiary employment, SSA has helped to nurture greater acceptance of employment options for beneficiaries. The challenge remains to build on this developing mindset to sustain policy, programmatic, and market momentum for improving the economic integration of people with disabilities into American life. Five appendixes are noted in the table of contents: (1) Ticket to Work Timeline and Rollout Phase; (2) National Beneficiary Survey Data Tables and Analyses; (3) Beneficiary Participation Statistics; (4) Methodological Approach to Estimating the Impact of Ticket to Work; and (5) Defining the Adequacy of Incentives (AOI) Groups Using Survey and Administrative Data. (Individual chapters contain footnotes and exhibits.) [This report was developed in collaboration with Cornell University Institute for Policy Research. Appendixes B through E are not available from ERIC.]
Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. P.O. Box 2393, Princeton, NJ 08543-2393. Tel: 609-799-3535; Fax: 609-799-0005; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: Social Security Administration (DHHS), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: Mathematica Policy Research, Princeton, NJ.; Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY.
Identifiers - Location: United States