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ERIC Number: ED498002
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2007-Aug
Pages: 7
Abstractor: ERIC
Reference Count: 0
Pre-Kindergarten to 3rd Grade (PK-3) School-Based Resources and Third Grade Outcomes. CrossCurrents. Issue 5. Publication # 2007-27
Brown, Brett V.; Bogard, Kimber
Child Trends
By the end of third grade, children must develop foundational skills in reading, math, and behavioral predispositions that maximize their chances of future academic success and wellbeing. Results from the 2005 National Assessment for Educational Progress (NAEP) indicate that many children lack these foundational skills, and that low-income children are especially vulnerable. This brief examines school as a context for the development of academic and behavior skills necessary for future success and wellbeing. A PK-3 approach to education provided the framework for selecting variables for the study. What children experience in school as they move through the PK-3 Continuum is based on high standards/expectations, shared vision and leadership between the principal and teachers, and continuity in learning experiences across these early grades via collaborative planning among teachers and low teacher turnover. Some empirical evidence indicates that the more PK-3 influences that children experience, the better their developmental outcomes by grade three and beyond. The reported study explored the extent to which child outcomes in third grade differ according to variations in school-level variables that are hypothesized to be related to positive outcomes: school-based PK-3 resources. Relationships are examined by subgroup based on educational risk status (e.g., parent education, family income, race/ethnicity). Study findings add fresh evidence that key elements of the school environment as identified in the PK-3 literature are related to later positive intellectual and behavioral outcomes for children. Additionally, reducing the inequality of access to these positive influences may lead to improved outcomes for children from high-risk backgrounds. This analysis creates a path for future researchers to examine school-level variables as a context for children's developmental outcomes. By modeling a combination of child, family, and school characteristics found to predict child outcomes, researchers can contribute to the agenda on improving educational contexts for all children. (Contains 18 endnotes, 3 figures and 2 tables.)
Child Trends. 4301 Connecticut Avenue NW Suite 350, Washington, DC 20008. Tel: 202-572-6000; Fax: 202-362-8420; Web site:
Publication Type: Numerical/Quantitative Data; Reports - Research
Education Level: Early Childhood Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: Child Trends, Inc., Washington, DC.