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ERIC Number: ED495731
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2007-Mar-19
Pages: 38
Abstractor: ERIC
Reference Count: 87
Reading Recovery[R]. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report
What Works Clearinghouse
"Reading Recovery"[R] is a short-term tutoring intervention program intended to serve the lowest achieving (bottom 20%) first-grade students. Students are chosen for "Reading Recovery"[R] by school staff, and selection is based on prior reading achievement, diagnostic testing (the Clay Observation Survey of Early Literacy Achievement), and teacher recommendations. The goals of "Reading Recovery"[R] are to promote literacy skills and reduce the number of first-grade students who are struggling to read. The program supplements classroom teaching with one-on-one tutoring sessions, generally conducted as pull-out sessions during the school day. Tutoring, which is conducted by trained "Reading Recovery"[R] teachers, takes place daily for 30 minutes over 12-20 weeks. Four studies of "Reading Recovery"[R] met the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) evidence standards, and one study met WWC evidence standards with reservations. These five studies included about 700 first-grade students attending elementary schools in diverse settings across the United States. All studies focused on low-achieving students who received the "Reading Recovery"[R] intervention in first grade. Generally, outcomes at the end of first grade were used by the WWC to calculate a rating of effectiveness. In one study, longer range effects were included. The WWC reviewed 78 studies that examined the effects of "Reading Recovery"[R]. The following four studies met WWC evidence standards and are reviewed in this intervention report: (1) Baenen, N., Bernhole, A., Dulaney, C., & Banks, K. (1997). Reading Recovery: Long-term progress after three cohorts. "Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk," 2(2), 161; (2) Pinnell, G. S., DeFord, D. E., & Lyons, C. A. (1988). "Reading Recovery: Early intervention for at-risk first graders" (Educational Research Service Monograph). Arlington, VA: Educational Research Service; (3) Pinnell, G. S., Lyons, C. A., DeFord, D. E., Bryk, A. S., & Seltzer, M. (1994). Comparing instructional models for the literacy education of high-risk first graders. "Reading Research Quarterly," 29(1), 8-39; and (4) Schwartz, R. M. (2005). Literacy learning of at-risk first-grade students in the Reading Recovery early intervention. "Journal of Educational Psychology," 97(2), 257-267. One study met WWC evidence standards with reservations, and is also reviewed in this report: Iverson, S., & Tunmer, W. E. (1993). Phonological processing skills and the Reading Recovery program. "Journal of Educational Psychology," 85(1), 112-126. The remaining 73 studies did not meet WWC evidence screens. "Reading Recovery"[R] was found to have positive effects on students' alphabetics skills and general reading achievement outcomes. The program was found to have potentially positive effects on comprehension and fluency. (Contains 26 footnotes.) [This document was published by the What Works Clearinghouse.]
What Works Clearinghouse. 2277 Research Boulevard, MS 5M, Rockville, MD 20850. Tel: 866-992-9799; Fax: 301-519-6760; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: Elementary Education; Grade 1
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: Institute of Education Sciences (ED), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: N/A