ERIC Number: ED485588
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2004-Jul
User Fees in Primary Education
Kattan, Raja Bentaouet; Burnett, Nicholas
World Bank Education Advisory Service
There are a large number of different "fees" that private households sometimes have to pay for publicly provided primary education, including tuition fees, textbook fees or costs and/or rental payments, compulsory uniforms, PTA dues, and various special fees such as exam fees, contributions to district education boards, and the like. In many countries, private tutoring, although not strictly compulsory, often adds to the household costs of primary education. This paper addresses all these fees and distinguishes between fees that are charged both formally and informally. User fees in primary education are pervasive and a serious obstacle to enrollment and completion for millions of children around the world. This has been evidenced by the huge surges in enrollment that have accompanied fee removal in countries such as Uganda and East Timor, where surges have at times threatened to overwhelm these countries? educational systems. The elimination of fees, which the World Bank supports, therefore requires care, if countries? educational systems are not to be overwhelmed and if quality is not to suffer. Fees often ensure the provision of quality inputs, such as books, for those who do enroll. Opportunities to eliminate inefficiencies in educational spending must be grasped if expenditure is not to grow out of hand. External assistance is also available, notably in the form of HIPC debt-relief funds and the Fast Track Initiative Catalytic Fund, as well as bilateral funding, to help countries handle the elimination of fees. Contains 5 tables, and 10 annexes.
Descriptors: Costs, Tuition, Primary Education, Foreign Countries, Economics, Fees, Enrollment Influences, Developing Nations
The World Bank 1818 H Street, NW Washington, DC 20433 USA. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Publication Type: Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: Elementary Secondary Education
Authoring Institution: World Bank, Washington, DC.
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A