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ERIC Number: ED481972
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2003
Pages: 21
Abstractor: N/A
Balanced Leadership: What 30 Years of Research Tells Us about the Effect of Leadership on Student Achievement. A Working Paper.
Waters, Tim; Marzano, Robert J.; McNulty, Brian
This paper reports on an examination of the effects of leadership practices on student achievement. It includes a meta-analysis of nearly every available study since the 1970s, including doctoral dissertations, that indicated it examined the effects of leadership on student achievement. From a total of more than 5,000 studies, 70 met the researchers' criteria for design, control, data analysis, and rigor. (Reports on the 70 studies are reference in an appendix.) From the analysis, the researchers have created what they call "a balanced leadership framework." This framework describes the knowledge, skills, strategies, resources, and tools educational leaders need to improve student achievement. The framework is predicated on the notion that effective leadership means more than simply knowing what to do; it means knowing when, how, and why to do it. The data from the meta-analysis demonstrate that there is, in fact, a substantial relationship between leadership and student achievement. (The effect size is discussed and expressed as a correlation.) The paper also contains a listing of 21 specific leadership responsibilities significantly correlated with student achievement. The average effect sizes for their affect on student achievement are also reported. (WFA)
Mid-Continent Research for Education and Learning, 2550 South Parker Road, Suite 500, Aurora, CO 80014. Tel: 303-337-0990; Fax: 303-337-3005; Web site: For full text: LeadershipOrganizationDevelopment/5031RR_BalancedLeadership.pdf.
Publication Type: Information Analyses
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: Mid-Continent Regional Educational Lab., Aurora, CO.
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A
IES Cited: ED561940; ED556130; ED557946; ED565615; ED545117; ED548024