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ERIC Number: ED480110
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2002-Jan
Pages: 10
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
Using Means-End Theory To Understand the Outdoor Adventure Experience.
Goldenberg, Marni; Klenosky, David; McAvoy, Leo; Holman, Tom
Means-end analysis was used to examine the linkages between elements of an Outward Bound course and the personal benefits and outcomes obtained or reinforced by course completion. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 216 persons, who completed a course at the North Carolina Outward Bound School. Respondents were aged 14-66 (83 percent were 14-18) and had completed a course lasting 4-21 days (half completed a 21-day course). The questionnaire asked respondents about key outcomes of the course they completed, why a particular outcome was important to them, and why the response given was important. A series of responses linking a particular outcome to a personal value is called a ladder. A computer program--LadderMap--helped construct hierarchical value maps (HVMs), which provided a graphical summary of linkages between program attributes, consequences, and values. The HVM generated for the entire sample represented 62 percent of the associations among concepts in respondents' ladders. Primary attributes listed by participants included overall course, specific course components, interactions, rock climbing, expeditioning, and campcraft. Significant consequences were relationships with others, knowledge, and personal growth. Significant values were transference, self-awareness, self-confidence, and personal goals. The HVM strongly linked rock climbing with determination/perseverance and relationships/teamwork; personal growth with self-confidence; and overall course with nature appreciation, physical fitness, and interpersonal relationships. (Contains 23 references) (SV)
Coalition for Education in the Outdoors, SUNY at Cortland, P.O. Box 2000, Park Center, Cortland, NY 13045 ($18). Tel: 607-753-4971; e-mail:
Publication Type: Reports - Research; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A