ERIC Number: ED476477
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2001-Nov
Reference Count: N/A
The Emergence and Evolution of Outdoor Adventure Programs, 1863-2000: A History of Student Initiated Outing Programs.
Webb, David J.
Since the late 1800s, factors that stimulated growth of outing clubs at colleges and universities included the desire to get outdoors and explore and the clubs' ability to provide outdoor training, access, and equipment. Outing clubs were initially formed by students. The outing clubs at Williams College, Dartmouth, and Allegheny College were all started in the early 1900s and continue to provide outdoor and service learning today. The Intercollegiate Outing Club Association (IOCA), formed in 1932, promotes fellowship among the various clubs, organizes some group trips, and exchanges information. Most outdoor clubs and participants gravitated to the least bureaucratic and most democratic processes of organization. The most-used trip model was the "common adventure," followed by the cooperative wilderness adventure with facilitator or leader. The least-used trip model was the guided or packaged trip, which had little democratic decision making as the trip was pre-planned and pre-organized and featured strong leadership. Typical activities and equipment are described. IOCA and outing clubs declined during the 1960s. The "do your own thing" ethic clashed with the clubs' aims of fostering group activities and togetherness. Increased student ownership of cars reduced reliance on clubs for transportation. As colleges became coed, the clubs' mixed-sex activities became less of an attraction. Lastly, people who might otherwise be leaders of outing clubs were busy leading political protests. (Contains 19 references) (TD)
Descriptors: Camping, Clubs, College Students, Educational History, Extracurricular Activities, Group Activities, Higher Education, Outdoor Activities, Participative Decision Making, Sailing, Social Organizations, Student Organizations, Wilderness
For full text of entire proceedings: http://www.aore.org/ICOREProceedings2001.pdf.
Publication Type: Historical Materials; Reports - Descriptive; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A