ERIC Number: ED474670
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2002-Sep
Reference Count: N/A
Poverty, AIDS and Children's Schooling: A Targeting Dilemma. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper.
Ainsworth, Martha; Filmer, Deon
The international community is becoming increasingly concerned with the impact of high adult mortality from Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome on the welfare of children, particularly on the welfare of orphans. Very little is known about the consequences of being an orphan in developing countries. This paper analyzes the relationship between orphan status, household wealth, and child school enrollment using data collected in the 1990s from 28 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean, and one country in Southeast Asia. The findings point to considerable diversity--so much so that generalizations are not possible. While there are some examples of large differentials in enrollment by orphan status, in the majority of cases, the orphan enrollment gap is dwarfed by the gap between children from richer and poorer households. In some cases, even children from the top of the wealth distribution have low enrollments, pointing to fundamental issues in the supply or demand for schooling that are a constraint to higher enrollments of all children. The gap in enrollment between female and male orphans is not much different than the gap between girls and boys living with parents, suggesting that female orphans are not disproportionately affected in terms of their enrollment status in most countries. These diverse findings demonstrate that the extent to which orphans are under-enrolled relative to other children is country-specific, at least in part because the correlation between orphan status and poverty is not consistent across countries. Social protection and schooling policies need to assess the specific country situation before considering mitigation measures. Country data sets and sample sizes, orphan rates, enrollment rates, and other statistics are appended. (Contains 21 references.) (SM)
Descriptors: Child Welfare, Developing Nations, Elementary Secondary Education, Enrollment Trends, Family Income, Foreign Countries, Poverty, Sex Differences, Socioeconomic Status
The World Bank, 1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20433. Tel: 202-473-1000; Fax: 202-477-6391; Web site: http://econ.worldbank.org/resource.php?type=5.
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: World Bank, Washington, DC.
Identifiers - Location: Africa; Cambodia