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ERIC Number: ED471936
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2002-Apr
Pages: 16
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
Profiled & Punished: How San Diego Schools Undermine Latino & African American Student Achievement.
Applied Research Center, Oakland, CA.
Using data from the San Diego City School District as a case study, this paper describes how discipline policies and practices put black and Latino students at a disadvantage. It offers examples of effective approaches to addressing dysfunctional classrooms. It focuses on how San Diego's schools provide unequal educational opportunity in the following ways (1) racial disparities in suspensions and expulsions (including the use of zero tolerance policies); (2) unequal access to advanced placement, enrichment, and college preparatory classes; (3) unequal graduation rates; and (4) a significant demographic shift in the student population unaccompanied by a similar change in the teaching force. The paper notes that students of color stay in school longer and achieve more when they have teachers who share some of their cultural and racial experiences, focusing on the role model effect, the power of expectations, cultural relevance, and teacher retention. It concludes with four policy recommendations: establish goals and benchmarks for success; create a challenging, respectful learning environment for all students; initiate new procedures to monitor discipline practices; and aggressively institute programs to attract more teachers of color. (SM)
Applied Research Center, 3782 Broadway, Oakland, CA 94611. Tel: 510-653-3415; Fax: 510-653-3427; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: Applied Research Center, Oakland, CA.