ERIC Number: ED471691
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2002
Reference Count: N/A
The Development and Consequences of Stereotype Vulnerability in Adolescents.
Aronson, Joshua; Good, Catherine
During adolescence, students become increasingly vulnerable to academic underperformance caused by negative reactions to their awareness of ability impugning stereotypes about one's group, a phenomenon known as stereotype threat. Although stereotype-related underperformance can occur early in development, it is during adolescence that it is seen most consistently, due to the development of social-cognitive and metacognitive abilities coupled with the social climate beginning with the transition to middle or junior high school. This chapter describes stereotype threat and traces research findings showing how these consequences can include lower academic performance both for minority groups on tests that include cognitive tasks and for women in male-oriented domains such as mathematics. Research is described showing that vulnerability to stereotype threat is most pronounced in situations that are evaluative or that direct conscious attention to one's stereotyped status, both present in standardized testing situations. The chapter also describes research that examines the development of sex and racial stereotyping in children, identity development, development of ability conceptions, and social-cognitive and metacognitive development. Various ways in which individuals can be affected by stereotypes alleging intellectual inferiority are discussed. The role of implicit theories of intelligence in reducing stereotype threat is considered, and evidence is presented that holding an incremental theory of intelligence provides an effective defense against the negative effects of stereotype threat. (Contains 122 references.) (KB)
Descriptors: Adolescent Development, Adolescents, Ethnic Stereotypes, Ethnicity, Females, Learning Motivation, Minority Group Children, Minority Groups, Sex Stereotypes, Sexual Identity, Stereotypes, Student Motivation, Theories, Underachievement
Information Age Publishing, Inc., 80 Mason Street, Greenwich, CT 06830. Tel: 203-661-7602; Fax: 203-661-7952; Web site: http://www.infoagepub.com.
Publication Type: Information Analyses
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
IES Cited: ED498581