ERIC Number: ED470777
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2002-Oct
Reference Count: N/A
Kirkpatrick and Beyond: A Review of Models of Training Evaluation. IES Report.
Tamkin, P.; Yarnall, J.; Kerrin, M.
Many organizations are not satisfied that their methods of evaluating training are rigorous or extensive enough to answer questions of value to them. Complaints about Kirkpatrick's popular four-step model (1959) of training evaluation are that each level is assumed to be associated with the previous and next levels and that the model is too simple and fails to take account of the intervening variables affecting learning and transfer. Others have developed models that purport to resolve difficulties and might be thought of as Kirkpatrick "progeny." They take much inherent in the original model and extend it at the front end, by including training design/needs analysis, or at the back end, by evaluating societal outcomes. The "progeny" are Hamblin's five-level approach (1974); Kaufman et. al's Organizational Elements Model (1995); Indiana University approach described by Molenda et al. (1996); the Carousel of Development from the Industrial Society (2000); the Five-Level Return on Investment Framework by Phillips, and Holton (1994, 1995); and the KPMT model described by Kearns and Miller (1997). Models unrelated to Kirkpatrick have a diffferent approach to how training evaluation might occur and include the following: responsive evaluation by Pulley (1994); context evaluation described by Newby (1992); and evaluative enquiry described by Preskill and Torres (1999). An underlying model of learning recognizes the intervening factors affecting the chain of impact from a developmental process to individual learning, changed behavior, and resulting organizational or social impact. The evaluation should be cognizant of variables that affect evaluating at these four levels: reaction, learning, behavioral change, and organizational results. (Contains 84 references.) (YLB)
Descriptors: Adult Development, Adult Education, Adult Learning, Developed Nations, Evaluation Methods, Foreign Countries, Job Training, Learning Processes, Learning Strategies, Models, Organizational Development, Outcomes of Education, Program Evaluation, Skill Development, Theory Practice Relationship, Transfer of Training, Vocational Education
Grantham Book Services, Ltd., Isaac Newton Way, Alma Park Industrial Estate, Grantham NG31 9SD, United Kingdom (18.95 British pounds (bound copy); 8 British pounds (pdf)). Web site: http://www.employment-studies.co.uk.
Publication Type: Information Analyses
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: Sussex Univ., Brighton (England). Inst. for Employment Studies.
Identifiers - Location: United Kingdom