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ERIC Number: ED470514
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2002-Mar
Pages: 30
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
ISBN: N/A
ISSN: N/A
Educational Opportunity: El Salvador's Barriers to Achieving Equality Persist.
Rosekrans, Kristin
This paper analyzes barriers to educational equality in El Salvador, using a multi-layered framework of educational opportunity. To improve educational opportunity and give the most marginalized sectors of society the possibility of changing their life circumstances requires policies that go beyond mere access to formal schooling. The model presented here has four levels of opportunity: attendance opportunity (related to geographical access, family economic resources, and parent attitudes); completion opportunity (avoidance of the cycle of grade repetition); learning opportunity (acquisition of skills and knowledge, related to educational quality); and life opportunity (related to higher education, increased income and status, and political power). This model is used to analyze education in rural El Salvador, where half the population lives in poverty and 27 percent in extreme poverty. Barriers at the first opportunity level include the tendency to enroll rural children at a later age, poverty or opportunity cost, and geographical access to secondary school. At the second level, poverty, poor educational quality, and high rates of grade repetition contribute to very low completion rates for rural students. At the third level, the poorest students attend the most ineffective schools and have the lowest achievement. At the fourth level, only a tiny percentage of rural students attain higher education, a prerequisite to an adequate income and escape from socioeconomic marginalization. Policy options are offered to expand opportunity at each level. An appendix discusses domains of school effectiveness. (Contains 36 references.) (SV)
Publication Type: Reports - Evaluative; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: El Salvador