ERIC Number: ED470071
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 2001-Nov
Effects of Instruction Administered through Written and Visual Symbol Systems on the Achievement of Formal and Distance Education Students.
This study was conducted to examine the effects of instruction administered through written and visual symbol systems on the achievement, confidence, attitudes, time-on-task, and retention of formal and distance education students. The sample for the study consisted of 161 undergraduate students from formal and distance education settings. Subjects were divided into three groups and asked to study the materials during a week. The first group studied materials that included only written symbol systems, the second group visual symbol systems, and the third group both written and visual symbol systems. After studying the materials, the subjects completed an achievement test and a Likert type attitude scale. Two weeks later, an identical achievement test was administered again to determine the retention of learning. Results indicated that different forms of symbol systems had different effects on students' achievement, confidence, and retention of learning. Attitudes of subjects were positive toward the symbol systems that they studied. More specifically, distance education students reacted positively toward both the written and visual symbol systems, while formal education students reacted positively only to written symbol systems. (Contains 19 references.) (Author/AEF)
Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Conventional Instruction, Distance Education, Higher Education, Information Processing, Instructional Design, Instructional Effectiveness, Instructional Materials, Nontraditional Education, Student Reaction, Teacher Effectiveness, Teaching Methods, Undergraduate Students, Visual Stimuli, Written Language
Publication Type: Reports - Research; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A
Note: In: Annual Proceedings of Selected Research and Development [and] Practice Papers Presented at the National Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (24th, Atlanta, GA, November 8-12, 2001). Volumes 1-2; see IR 021 504.