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ERIC Number: ED469229
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2000-Dec
Pages: 6
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
A Reflection on "Learning To Learn": The Four Pillars of Learning and Their Implications for Curriculum Reforms.
Nanzhao, Zhou
In an information-intensive age, education is mandated to respond to two complementary demands: It has to transmit an increasing amount of constantly evolving knowledge and know-how adapted to a knowledge-driven civilization, and it has to enable learners not to be overwhelmed by the flows of information, while keeping personal and social development as its end in view. This presentation focuses on the changes in education emerging over the very recent past, which have mandated fundamental rethinking on roles of education and its content. Four elements or "pillars of education" are proposed that are relevant to a modern world undergoing swift social and economic changes, and swiftly evolving technology: (1) learning to know, which focuses on combining broad general knowledge and basic education; (2) learning to do, with emphasis on practical skills necessary for a profession or trade; (3) learning to be, the underpinning principle of which involves development of the human potential to its fullest; and (4) learning to live together, which is relevant in the current context of globalization. If applied appropriately within the contextual setting around the Asia-Pacific region, these pillars will add great value to the relevance of curriculum content and the delivery of a quality education. (RT)
International Bureau of Education, C.P. 199, 1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland. Tel: 41.22.917.78.00; Fax: 41.22.917.78.01; Telex: 415 771 BIE; Web site:; e-mail: For full text:
Publication Type: Opinion Papers; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: International Bureau of Education, Geneva (Switzerland).