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ERIC Number: ED468661
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2002
Pages: 13
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
Important Historical Events in Reading Instruction.
Ediger, Marlow
This paper lists and dates important historical happenings related to reading instruction. John Locke (1632-1704) was an early advocate that school should be a pleasant place to learn. He believed in the "tabula rasa" theory whereby a student had a mind like a blank sheet with nothing printed initially. Starting from the conception that knowledge has to foster rather than impede the growth of a rounded personality, Locke demanded a method of education aimed at encouraging initiative, independent judgment, observation, and critical use of reason. Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (1746-1827) advocated the use of the object lesson. Thus, if students were to read about a "dog," a model would be shown to students. Pestalozzi, like Locke, stressed that school should be a joyous place to be and humane methods of instruction should be used. Johann Friedrich Herbart (1776-1841) had his own teacher training school in which he practiced his educational theories. He believed in five essential steps of teaching: (1) teachers should prepare learners for the ensuing lesson; (2) the teacher presented the new lesson directly related to the step of preparation; (3) the learner then associated the new with the old learnings (association); (4) students thus developed generalizations, which guided them to further related ideas in reading; and (5) students were to use that which had been learned for better retention. Friedrich William Froebel (1782-1852) is credited with beginning the kindergarten movement. He believed strongly in students being creative beings. Soren Kierkegaard (1813-1855) emphasized life as being subjective and filled with many choices. He emphasized existentialism as a philosophy of life. Charles Sanders Pierce (1839-1914) was an early advocate of students engaging in problem-solving activities. (Contains 11 references.) (NKA)
Publication Type: Information Analyses; Opinion Papers
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A