ERIC Number: ED468511
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 2000-Feb
Reconceptualizing School Leadership for the 21st Century: Music, Metaphors, and Leadership Density.
Smith, Wade; Ellett, Chad D.
Efforts to change the role of principals over the past 30 years typically reflect a leader-centrist perspective of schools illustrated by the metaphors of a marching band or the slightly less hierarchical classical orchestra. In these conceptual systems, policy (score) is generated (composed) by policymaking bodies (composers) with principals (conductors) directing teachers (orchestra members) and students (mini-orchestras). Small-combo jazz differs from other musical groups in the degree of creativity encouraged, member rapport, form and structure, audience expectations, constant changes in leadership from player to player, with each member bringing unique knowledge and expertise, and the greater importance of each group member's contributions. Unlike traditional schools, jazz schools are process, not outcome, oriented, and assume teachers and students create their own knowledge in harmony with others. Like small-combo jazz, characteristics of schools with high leadership density include: (1) individual and group/organization efficacy; (2) a strong learning environment; (3) constructivist learning; (4) an exciting social climate; (5) appropriate teacher autonomy; (6) breadth and depth of knowledge; (7) collaboration; (8) collective ownership and (9) dynamic leadership. Traditional schools are driven by external goals and developed with little teacher input, whereas jazz schools embrace learning as an ongoing process, creativity, teachers working in small groups, and internally developed performance standards. Future research using semantic differential methodology will be correlated to other important measures, including self-efficacy beliefs, school culture, organizational effectiveness, receptivity to change, and decision-making. (Contains 46 references.) (TEJ)
Descriptors: Administrator Effectiveness, Educational Change, Educational Environment, Elementary Secondary Education, Group Dynamics, Group Structure, Imagery, Jazz, Leaders, Leadership Qualities, Metaphors, Organizational Climate, Organizational Communication, Participative Decision Making, Power Structure, Teacher Administrator Relationship
Publication Type: Opinion Papers; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (New Orleans, Louisiana, April 24-28, 2000).