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ERIC Number: ED468458
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2002-Mar
Pages: 37
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
The Complementarity of Language and Other Human Capital: Immigrant Earnings in Canada. Discussion Paper.
Chiswick, Barry R.; Miller, Paul W.
This paper analyzes the effects of language practice on earnings among adult male immigrants in Canada using data from the 1991 Census of Canada. It examines whether destination language skills are complements to or substitutes in generating earnings with respect to other kinds of human capital (schooling and pre- and post-migration labor market experience). Results show that earnings increase with schooling, pre-immigration experience, duration in Canada, and proficiency in the official languages (English and French). There is complementarity between language skills and both schooling and pre-immigration experience. Greater proficiency in the official languages enhances the effects on earnings of schooling and pre-immigration labor market experience. Language proficiency and post-migration experience appear to be substitutes, in that among people with greater language proficiency, the impact of time in Canada on earnings is smaller. (Contains 15 references.) (Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse for ESL Literacy Education) (SM)
IZA, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany. E-mail: For full text:
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: Chicago Univ., IL.; Canadian Embassy, Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: Institute for the Study of Labor, Bonn (Germany).
Identifiers - Location: Canada