ERIC Number: ED468090
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1984
Women in Leadership and Implications for Affirmative Action.
Stansbury, Kendyll; Warner, Linda Sue; Wiggins, Thomas
This paper looks at six theoretical approaches for understanding the underrepresentation of women in leadership positions and examines the theories' implications for affirmative action. The theories are as follows: (1) motivational and attitudinal models; (2) sex-role socialization; (3) sex-typed jobs and internal labor markets; (4) the constraint of numbers; (5) patriarchy; and (6) minorities within a minority. The problem with these approaches is that they create tension. For instance, increasing the number of women in leadership positions, as two of the approaches imply, makes little sense from the perspective of motivational/attitudinal models. Conversely, to work upon the psychological structure of women makes no sense if the barriers exist at an organizational or institutional level. The basic problem with all the approaches is that they illuminate only part of the problem. Affirmative action must occur on all levels and become orchestrated in all areas. It is more fruitful, it is argued, to view the theoretical themes as representing different levels of analysis that focus upon different aspects of the same problem. So, for example, if affirmative action is viewed from an individual level, an organizational level, and an institutional level, then sex-role socialization can be grouped as an individual focus, thus making it consonant with other theories. (Contains 47 references.) (RJM)
Publication Type: Information Analyses; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: In: Journal of Educational Equity and Leadership, Volume 4, Number 2, Summer 1984.