ERIC Number: ED466453
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2002-Apr-5
Reference Count: N/A
Alternatives in Education: An Exploration of Learner-Centered, Progressive, and Holistic Education.
Martin, Robin Ann
Based on a database of over 500 resources, this paper explores the educational alternatives that exist today between the cracks of mainstream education and culture. It presents information about the growing numbers of schools and education centers that call themselves learner-centered, progressive, and/or holistic. Sources of data for this summary report also include over 3 years of informal interviews with and observations of people at alternative schools. The paper begins by examining terminology issues, discussing qualities for distinguishing educational alternatives, and describing eight types of schools (democratic and free schools, folk education, Quaker schools, homeschooling/unschooling/deschooling, Krishnamurti schools, Montessori schools, open schools, and Waldorf schools). It also presents frameworks for education (maps for understanding the territories of alternatives), and it discusses the three orientations of a competency based education: transaction (progressive), self-directed (learner-centered), and transformation (holistic). After looking at political issues around school choice which could impact the growth of the various philosophical alternatives, the paper concludes that in a society where issues of pluralism and diversity are valued as part of creating a more sustainable world and just democracy, the diversity of philosophical perspectives in education needs to be acknowledged. (Contains 41 references.) (SM)
Descriptors: Elementary Secondary Education, Folk Schools, Free Schools, Holistic Approach, Home Schooling, Montessori Method, Nontraditional Education, Open Education, Progressive Education, School Choice, Waldorf Method
For full text: http://www.PathsofLearning.net/archives/aera2002.htm.
Publication Type: Reports - Descriptive; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A