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ERIC Number: ED461921
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 2001-Oct
Pages: 66
Abstractor: N/A
Racial Profiling and Punishment in U.S. Public Schools: How Zero Tolerance Policies and High Stakes Testing Subvert Academic Excellence and Racial Equity. Research Report [and] Executive Summary.
Johnson, Tammy; Boyden, Jennifer Emiko; Pittz, William J.
This report analyzes current public education policies, procedures, and practices that compound racial inequities by profiling students of color. Such practices divert resources away from proven solutions that advance academic excellence. Bias in high-stakes testing serves to increase student achievement gaps. Zero-tolerance and maximum-security schools have discipline policies that commonly push youth of color out of school at rates disproportionate to their white counterparts. Recommendations include providing equal and universal access to quality teachers of diverse backgrounds and races, using small schools and reducing class size, eliminating exit exams, repealing zero-tolerance policies, refocusing priorities so schools and districts can receive equitable resources, and using racial-equity report cards as a means of educational policy assessment. This guide includes four essays: (1) "Horace Had It Right: The Stakes Are Still High for Students of Color" (Linda Mizell); (2) "Zero Tolerance and School Security Measures: A Failed Experiment" (Russell J. Skiba and Peter E. Leone); (3) "Apartheid in American Education: How Opportunity Is Rationed to Children of Color in the United States" (Linda Darling-Hammond); and (4) "Small Schools: An Anti-Racist Intervention in Urban America" (Michelle Fine and Linda C. Powell). Appendix I lists resources, and Appendix II provides authors' biographies. (RT)
ERASE Initiative, Applied Research Center, 3781 Broadway, Oakland, CA 94611. Tel: 510-653-3415; Fax: 510-653-3427; e-mail: For full text:
Publication Type: Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: Applied Research Center, Oakland, CA.
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A
Note: Contributing writers include Beverly Cross, Linda Darling-Hammond, Michelle Fine, Linda Powell, Russell J. Skiba, Peter E. Leone and Linda Mizell.