ERIC Number: ED461711
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2000-Sep
Reference Count: N/A
Rural-Urban Dimensions of Inequality Change. Working Papers.
Eastwood, Robert; Lipton, Michael
This study reviews evidence that overall within-country inequality, although showing no trends from 1960-80, increased after 1980-85, focusing on developing and transitional countries. It explores trends in rural-urban, intrarural, and intraurban inequality of income, poverty risk, health, and education, and the offsetting trends in inequality hypothesis (OTI). OTI claims that underlying the overall inequality trend has been a tendency for rising intrasectoral inequality to be offset by falling rural-urban inequality. Analysis of the limited available data indicate that there is no such pattern. Different regions and countries experienced different, though substantial, trends and timings of change in different types of rural-urban inequality. For example, rural-urban gaps in mean consumption and poverty incidence have narrowed in Africa and widened in Asia, but they show no global trend, usually moving in the same direction as overall inequality. Such change can be explained in part by two demographic forces affecting almost all developing countries since the 1950s, but at different times and speeds (demographic transition and urbanization). The finding of rising rural-urban odds ratios in education (and to some extent in health) indicators appears to indicate rising urban bias. (Contains 64 references.) (SM)
Descriptors: Access to Health Care, Developing Nations, Educational Opportunities, Equal Education, Health Conditions, Population Trends, Poverty, Rural Areas, Rural Urban Differences, Socioeconomic Status, Urban Areas, Urbanization
UNU/WIDER Publications, Katajanokanlaituri 6 B, 00160, Helsinki, Finland. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Swedish International Development Cooperation Authority, Stockholm.
Authoring Institution: United Nations Univ., Helsinki (Finland). World Inst. for Development Economics Research.