ERIC Number: ED461322
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1996-Jul
An Examination of Federally Supported Retention Models in American Higher Education: The Policy and the Politics.
Mitchem, Arnold L.
This paper, presented at an international conference, addresses the ways in which the U.S. federal government has attempted since 1965 to use higher education as a means to equalize opportunity in American society. Over the years, the original federal need-based student aid programs changed and began to focus more on student supportive services and retention strategies. There are three student support services models. The first special enrollment model is found most often in four-year selective colleges and universities in which program staff members select a group of students upon which to concentrate services; in some instances program staff members are also involved in the institution's admissions and financial aid decisions. Such programs focus on two related obstacles to student success: the students' perceived academic weakness and the institution's own limitations. The second, developmental education model, found mostly in two- and four-year colleges, focuses more narrowly on students' lack of preparation; students are usually selected based on admissions test scores. The third, laboratory model, an approach most often found at publicly supported institutions with high percentages of disadvantaged students, generally relies on self-selection as a means of identifying students; programs most often concentrate on one or a group of services, such as tutoring. (MAB)
Descriptors: Academic Persistence, Access to Education, College Students, Developmental Studies Programs, Educationally Disadvantaged, High Risk Students, Higher Education, Needs Assessment, Nontraditional Students, Outcomes of Education, Policy Formation, School Holding Power, Student College Relationship, Student Financial Aid, Student Needs, Student Placement
Publication Type: Opinion Papers; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the European Access Network Conference (Amsterdam, Netherlands, July 1, 1996). Contains light type.