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ERIC Number: ED459000
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2001-Dec
Pages: 4
Abstractor: N/A
Inclusion in Middle Schools. ERIC Digest.
Hines, Rebecca A.
The generally accepted concept of inclusion is that students with disabilities attend classes with their general education peers with direct support from special educators. This digest discusses the rationale for inclusion in middle schools, explores recent research on inclusion, and discusses barriers to implementation. The digest notes that the rationale for inclusion has never rested on research findings, but on principle. Proponents insist that the integration of students with disabilities is inherently right, compared often to the same right to racial integration. Both opponents and proponents of inclusion can find scattered research to support their respective views, although current research is inconclusive. Opponents point to research showing negative effects of inclusion, often citing low self-esteem of students with disabilities in the general education setting and poor academic grades. Proponents point to research that shows positive results for both special and general education students, including academic and social benefits. The digest concludes with a discussion of the barriers to inclusion, which generally fall into three categories: organizational, attitudinal, and knowledge barriers. (LPP)
ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Children's Research Center, University of Illinois, 51 Gerty Dr., Champaign, IL 61820-7469. Tel: 800-583-4135 (Toll Free); Tel: 217-333-1386; Fax: 217-333-3767; Web site:; e-mail: For full text:
Publication Type: ERIC Publications; ERIC Digests in Full Text
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Champaign, IL.
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A